Uninterruptible power supply: How to pick the right one
An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) offers a simple solution: it’s a battery in a box with enough capacity to run devices plugged in via its AC outlets for minutes to hours, depending on your needs and the mix of hardware. This might let you keep internet service active during an extended power outage, give you the five minutes necessary for your desktop computer with a hard drive to perform an automatic shutdown and avoid lost work (or in a worst case scenario, running disk repair software).
In terms of entertainment, it could give you enough time to save your game after a blackout or—perhaps more importantly—give notice to others in a team-based multiplayer game that you need to exit, so you’re not assessed an early-quit penalty.
This article was updated July, 2022 to add a link to our IOGear GBB1000N UPS review.
A UPS also doubles as a surge protector and aids your equipment and uptime by buoying temporary sags in voltage and other vagaries of electrical power networks, some of which have the potential to damage computer power supplies. For from about $80 to $200 for most systems, a UPS can provide a remarkable amount of peace of mind coupled with additional uptime and less loss.
UPSes aren’t new. They date back decades. But the cost has never been lower and the profusion of options never larger. In this introduction, I help you understand what a UPS can offer, sort out your needs, and make preliminary recommendations for purchase. Later this year, TechHive will offer reviews of UPS models appropriate for home and small offices from which you can make informed choices.
Uninterruptible is the key word
The UPS emerged in an era when electronics were fragile and drives were easily thrown off kilter. They were designed to provide continuous—or “uninterruptible”—power to prevent a host of a problems. They were first found in server racks and used with network equipment until the price and format dropped to make them usable with home and small-office equipment.
This inexpensive AmazonBasics Standby UPS ($80) features 12 surge-protected outlets, but only six of them are also connected to its internal battery for standby power.
Any device you owned that suddenly lost power and had a hard disk inside it might wind up with a corrupted directory or even physical damage from a drive head smashing into another part of the mechanism. Other equipment that loaded its firmware off chips and ran using volatile storage could also wind up losing valuable caches of information and require some time to re-assemble it.
Mentioned in this article
Cyberpower CP800AVR UPS
Hard drives evolved to better manage power failures (and acceleration in laptops), and all portable devices and most new computers moved to movement-free solid state drives (SSDs) that don’t have internal spindles and read/write heads. Embedded devices—from modems and routers to smart devices and DVRs—became more resilient and faster at booting. Most devices sold today have an SSD or flash memory or cards.
It’s still possible if your battery-free desktop computer suddenly loses power that it may be left in a state that leaves a document corrupted, loses a spreadsheet’s latest state, or happens at such an inopportune moment you must recover your drive or reinstall the operating system. Avoiding those possibilities, especially if you regularly encounter minor power issues at home, can save you at least the time of re-creating lost work and potentially the cost of drive-rebuilding software, even if your hardware remains intact.
A more common problem can arise from networking equipment that has modest power requirements. Losing power means losing access to the internet, even when your cable, DSL, or fiber line remains powered or active from the ISP’s physical plant or a neighborhood interconnection point, rather than a transformer on your building or block. A UPS can keep your network up and running while the power company restores the juice, even if that takes hours.
When power cuts out, the UPS’s battery kicks in. It delivers expected amounts over all connected devices until the battery’s power is exhausted. A modern UPS can also signal to a computer a number of factors, including remaining time or trigger a shutdown through built-in software (as with Energy Saver in macOS) or installed software.
In the event of a blackout, CyberPower’s software will gracefully shut down a computer while it operates on battery power from its CP800AVR UPS.
One of the key differentiators among UPSes intended for homes and individual devices in an office is battery capacity. You can buy units across a huge range of battery sizes, and the higher-capacity the battery, the longer runtime you will get or more equipment you can support with a single UPS. In some cases, it may make sense to purchase two or more UPSes to cover all the necessary equipment you have, each matched to the right capacity.
Mentioned in this article
AmazonBasics Standby UPS 800VA 450W Surge Protector Battery Backup
Batteries do need to be replaced, although it can be after a very long period. A UPS typically has a light or will use a sound to indicate a battery that needs to be replaced, and it might indicate this via software running on the computer to which it’s connected.
With great power, comes great power conversion
UPSes for consumer and small-business purposes come in standby and line interactive versions. Standby units keep their battery ready for on-demand, automatic use, but it’s otherwise on standby, as its name indicates. A line interactive version feeds power through an inverter from the wall to connected devices while also charging the battery. It can condition power, smoothing out highs and lows, and switch over to the battery within a few milliseconds. (Other flavors are much more expensive or intended for critical systems and higher power consumption.)
A few years ago, the price differential was high enough that you had to really balance the need for particular features against cost. Now, you may want to opt for a line interaction UPS because of its advantages, which include less wear and tear of the battery, extending its lifetime. Batteries are relatively expensive to replace, at a good fraction of the original item’s purchase price, so keeping them in fit condition longer reduces your overall cost of ownership.
A UPS isn’t just about providing power when it’s interrupted, though, and that’s another place that a standby and line interactive approach vary.
APC’s website offers a handy tool that will help you decide which of its UPSes fit your requirements, based on total power draw and how long you’ll need battery power for your components.
These three voltage fluctuations can happen regularly or infrequently on power supplied by your utility:
- Surges: Utilities sometimes have brief jumps in electrical power, which can affect electronics, sometimes burning out a power supply or frying the entire device. Surge protection effectively shaves off voltage above a certain safe range.
- Sags: Your home or office can have a momentary voltage sag when something with a big motor kicks on, like a clothes dryer or a heat pump—sometimes even in an adjacent apartment, house, or building.
- Undervoltage (“brownouts”): In some cases with high electrical usage across an area, a utility might reduce voltage for an extended period to avoid a total blackout. This can mess with motor-driven industrial and home equipment—many appliances have motors, often driving a compressor, as in a refrigerator or freezer. With electronics, extended undervoltage has the potential damage some power supplies.
A standby model typically relies on dealing with excess voltage by having inline metal-oxide varistors (MOVs), just as in standalone surge protectors. These MOVs shift power to ground, but eventually burn out after extensive use. At that point, all the UPS models I checked stop passing power through. (That’s as opposed to most surge protectors, which extinguish a “protected” LED on their front, but continue to pass power.)
For power sags and undervoltage, a standby model will tap the battery. If it happens frequently or in quick succession, your UPS might not be up to the task and provide enough delay that a desktop system or hard drive loses power long enough to halt its operating system or crash.
Mentioned in this article
Tripp Lite Smart1500LCDT
A line interactive UPS continuously feeds power through a conditioner that charges the battery and regulates power. This automatic voltage regulation, known as AVR, can convert voltage as needed to provide clean power to attached outlets without relying on the battery. With a line interactive model, the battery is used only as a last resort.
There’s one final power characteristic of a UPS that can be found in both standby and line interactive models: the smoothness of the alternating current generation produced by the model from the direct current output by its battery. Alternating current reverses its power flow smoothly 60 times each second, and a UPS must simulate that flow, which can be represented as an undulating sine wave.
The Tripp Lite Smart1500LCDT is a line-interactive UPS, meaning it feeds connected devices conditioned power while it charges its battery at the same time. In the event of a blackout, it will switch to battery power within a few milliseconds.
A UPS might produce a pure sine wave, which adds to cost, or a stairstepped one, in which power shifts more abruptly up and down as it alternates. A rough simulated sine wave can be a showstopper for certain kinds of computer power supplies, which have components that interact poorly with the voltage changes. It could cause premature wear on components or cause them to outright shut down or cause additional damage.
If your device has active power factor correction (PFC) or incorporates fragile or sensitive electronics, especially for audio recording, you likely need a pure sine wave. It’s not always easy to figure out if your device has active PFC; when in doubt, opt for a pure sine wave—the additional cost has come way down.
Even for equipment that isn’t susceptible to power-supply problems, a stepped sine wave can cause a power supply to emit a high-pitched whine when it’s on battery power.
One final UPS feature that may also be helpful: less-expensive models have one or more LEDs to indicate certain status elements, like working from backup power or the internal battery needing to be replaced. Others have an LCD screen (sometimes backlit) that provides a variety of information, sometimes an excessive amount, which may be viewable through software installed on a connected computer.
All UPSes have built-in audible alarms for outages, and some are quite loud.
A UPS that puts out a pure sine wave, such as this APC SMC1000, is your best choice if you’re operating sensitive equipment, such as audio-recording gear. An LCD display is also useful for monitoring the UPS’s status.
Determining your UPS needs
Most of us have two main scenarios to plan for: keep the network up, and prevent our AC-powered computers from abruptly shutting down. These involve very different choices in hardware and configuration.
One common element between both, however: having enough outlets spaced correctly to plug all your items directly in. Most UPSes feature both battery-backed outlets and surge-protected outlets that aren’t wired into the battery. You need to study quantity and position, as it is strongly recommended you don’t plug a power strip or other extensions into either kind of UPS outlet, as it increases the risk of electrical fire.
That can be particularly tricky if you have large “wall wart” style AC adapters or wider-than-average AC plugs.
Scenario 1: Keep the network up
Mentioned in this article
APC Smart-UPS C 1000VA (model SMC1000)
Examine all the devices that make up your network. That may include a broadband modem, a VoIP adapter for phone calls, one or more Wi-Fi routers, one or more ethernet switches, and/or a smart home hub. Because you may have these spread out across your home or office, you might wind up requiring two or more UPSes to keep the network going.
If you have a modem, router, and switch (plus a VoIP adapter if you need it) all in close proximity, you might be able to live without other parts of your networking operating during an outage. It’s also probable that you already have this hardware plugged into a surge protector. (These devices tend to not benefit from a UPS’s sag/undervoltage assistance, as their DC adapters tend to provide power in a larger range of circumstances.)
You might already have a simple battery backup built into or included with one or more pieces of equipment. Many smart home hubs have built-in battery backups. And since government regulators typically require a multi-hour battery backup for VoIP service, your broadband modem or VoIP adapter might include an internal battery for that reason.
To find out the size of UPS you need, check the specs on all your equipment. This is usually molded in plastic in black-on-black 4-point type on the underside of the gear or on a DC converter that you plug directly into a power outlet or that comes in two parts with a block between the adapter to your device and a standard AC outlet cord. The numbers you are looking for are either DC voltage and amperage, like 12 volts and 1.5 amps, or total wattage, like 18 watts.
Add up these quantities, and that can let you use planning tools to find the right unit. For instance, APC offers an extended runtime chart that lists wattage and runtime for each of its units. You can also use a calculator on the site in which you add devices or watts and it provides a guide to which units to purchase and how much time each could operate at that load.
For most combinations of gear and affordable units, you should be able to keep network equipment running for at least an hour entirely on battery power. Spend more or purchase multiple units, and you could boost that to two to eight hours.
To determine the size of UPS you’ll need, add up the the number of watts that each device will draw. You can find this information on each one’s power supply or AC adapter.
Scenario 2: Bridge power blips and shut down a computer
Your goal here is to make sure all your devices that need to continue running have enough power to do so across a short outage and to shut down—preferably automatically—during any outage that lasts more than a few minutes.
There are two separate power issues to consider: the electrical load that devices connected to the UPS’s battery-backed outlets add up to, and the capacity of the internal battery on the UPS, which determines how long power can flow at a given attached load. (The outlets only protected against power surges have a far higher power load limit that computer equipment won’t exceed. )
Start by calculating the total wattage for all the equipment you’re going to connect, just like with network gear. Most hardware will show a single number for watts or a maximum watts consumed; if it only shows amperes (or amps), multiple 120 (for volts) times the amps listed to get watts. In my office, I have an iMac, an external display, a USB hub, and two external hard drives. That adds up to about 250W.
With that number, you can examine the maximum load on a UPS, which is often perplexingly listed using either volt-amperes (VA) and watts or both. Although volts times amps and watts should be equal, UPS manufacturers use a different formula, which is probably a bad idea. Watts on a UPS is volts times amps times power factor, or the efficiency with which a power supply on a computer or other device provides power from its AC input to its components.
A UPS uses a USB cable to communicate with a connected computer, triggering software on the machine to gracefully short down while operating on battery power.
In practice, you can still add up all your devices in watts, and use that as a gauge to find a UPS that exceeds that amount by some margin: you can’t exceed the UPS load factor with your equipment, or it won’t function. (If a UPS is rated only in VA, multiply that number by a power factor of 0.6 or 60% to get the bottom level in watts.)
With that number in hand, you can then look over the runtime available on models that can support your total load, consulting the figures, charts, or calculators noted above that manufacturers provide to estimate how many minutes you get on battery-only power.
With my iMac set up above of 250W, I have several options in the $100 to $150 range that have a power load maximum far above that number and which can provide five or more minutes of runtime.
It’s also critical to pick a UPS model that includes a USB connection to your desktop computer, along with compatible software for your operating system. While macOS and Windows have built in power-management options that can automatically recognize compatible UPS hardware, you might want additional software to tweak UPS settings (like alarm sounds) or to provide detailed reports and charts on power quality and incidents.
The OS power-management tools and software from UPS makers give you options to create safe, automatic shutdown conditions. You can define a scenario like, “If the outage lasts more than three minutes or if the battery’s power is less than 50 percent, begin an immediate safe shutdown.”
It’s also important to be sure that all your running apps can exit without losing data and not halt the shutdown. For instance, an unsaved Word file might prevent Windows from completing a shutdown. In macOS, the Terminal app refuses to quit by default if there’s an active remote session, but it can be configured to ignore that.
Picking the right UPS
With all that in mind, here’s a checklist to go through in evaluating a UPS:
- What kind of time with power during an outage do you require? Long for networked equipment; short for a computer shutdown.
- How many watts do your equipment consume? Calculate your connected devices’ total power requirements.
- Do you have frequent or long power sags? Pick line interactive instead of standby.
- With a computer, does it rely on active PFC? If so, pick a model with a pure sine wave output.
- How many outlets do you need for power backup? Will all your current plugs fit in the available layout?
- Do you need to consult the UPS status frequently enough or in detail that an LCD screen or connected software is required?
We’re in the process of reviewing several uninterruptible power supplies and will update this stories with links to those reviews as we finish them. Stay tuned.
Generator vs. Backup Battery: Which Emergency Power Source Should You Choose?
In this article:
- Battery backup vs. generator
- Which backup power is right for you?
If you live somewhere with extreme weather or regular power outages, it’s a good idea to have a backup power source for your home — particularly during hurricane season. There are various types of backup power systems on the market, but each serves the same primary purpose: keeping your lights and appliances on when the power goes out.
In the past, fuel-powered standby generators (also known as whole house generators) have dominated the backup power supply market, but reports of risk of carbon monoxide poisoning have led many to search for alternatives. Battery backups have emerged as a more eco-friendly and potentially safer option to conventional generators.
Despite performing the same function, battery backups and generators are different devices. Each one has a particular set of advantages and disadvantages, which we’ll cover in the following comparison guide. Keep reading to find out about the main differences between battery backups and generators and decide which option is right for you.
Battery backup vs. generator: How do they compare?
In terms of cost, battery backups are the pricier option upfront. But generators need fuel to run, which means that you’ll spend more over time to maintain a steady fuel supply.
With battery backups, you’ll need to pay for the backup battery system upfront, as well as installation costs (each of which are in the thousands). Exact pricing will vary based on which battery model you choose and how many of them you need to power your home. However, it’s common for an average-sized home battery backup system to run between $10,000 and $20,000.
For generators, the upfront costs are slightly lower. On average, the price of purchasing and installing a standby generator can range from $7,000 to $15,000. However, remember that generators require fuel to run, which will increase your operating expenses. The specific costs will depend on a few factors, including the size of your generator, which type of fuel it uses and the amount of fuel used to run it.
Battery backups earn a slight edge in this category since they can be mounted to the wall or floor, whereas generator installations require a bit of additional work. Regardless, you’ll need to hire a professional for either type of installation, both of which will require a full day of work and may cost several thousand dollars.
Aside from setting up the device itself, installing a generator also requires pouring a concrete slab, connecting the generator to a dedicated fuel source and installing a transfer switch.
Battery backups are the clear winner in this category. They’re quiet, run independently, don’t produce any emissions and don’t require any ongoing maintenance.
On the other hand, generators can be quite noisy and disruptive when they’re in use. They also emit exhaust or fumes, depending on which type of fuel they use to run — which may irritate you or your neighbors.
Keeping your home powered
As far as how long they can keep your home powered, standby generators easily outperform battery backups. As long as you have enough fuel, generators can run continuously for up to three weeks at a time (if necessary).
That’s simply not the case with battery backups. Let’s use the Tesla Powerwall as an example. It has 13.5 kilowatt-hours of storage capacity, which can provide power for a few hours on its own. You can get extra power out of them if they’re part of a solar panel system or if you use multiple batteries in a single system.
Expected lifespan and warranty
In most cases, battery backups come with longer warranties than standby generators. However, these warranties are measured in different ways.
Over time, battery backup systems lose the ability to hold a charge, much like phones and laptops. For that reason, battery backups include an end-of-warranty capacity rating, which measures how effective a battery will hold a charge by the end of its warranty period. In Tesla’s case, the company guarantees that the Powerwall battery should retain 70% of its capacity by the end of its 10-year warranty.
Some backup battery manufacturers also offer a “throughput” warranty. This is the number of cycles, hours or energy output (known as “throughput”) that a company guarantees on its battery.
With standby generators, it’s easier to estimate lifespan. Good-quality generators can run for 3,000 hours, as long as they’re well maintained. Therefore, if you run your generator for 150 hours per year, then it should last about 20 years.
Which battery backup is right for you?
Across most categories, battery backup systems come out on top. In short, they’re better for the environment, easier to install and cheaper to run long-term. Plus, they have longer warranties than standby generators.
With that said, traditional generators can be a good option in some cases. Unlike battery backups, you only need a single generator to restore power in an outage, which brings down the upfront costs. Plus, standby generators can last longer than battery backup systems in a single session. As a result, they’ll be a safer bet if the power is out for days at a time.
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Power supply sources and systems
Power inverters are modern automatic devices capable of providing backup power for household and computer equipment, specialized equipment and electrical appliances. During power outages, inverter systems will maintain a high level of comfort in the home and business continuity.
Benefits of Inverter UPS Systems
|Automatic Operation||Double overload resistance||Instant guaranteed transfer to inverter backup|
|Generates high quality pure sine output voltage||Work in automatic mode as a backup power source||Can operate in combination with alternative energy sources|
|High reliability based on advanced technology||Has the function of adding power to the power of the mains or generator||Provide uninterrupted power supply to the house without the formation of exhaust gases and noise|
Inverter backup power systems
The best option for solving the problem of interruptions or lack of electricity are PremiumVolt and PracticVolt inverter backup power systems based on professional OutBack Power (USA manufacturer) or Victron Energy (Netherlands) inverter/chargers and special capacious batteries (energy storage).
Depending on the user’s requirements, the number of system components may vary. So, for servicing individual strategically important devices (for example, a gas boiler, a computer or a refrigerator, medical or commercial equipment, etc.), one inverter and a pair of batteries are enough.
To provide backup power to the entire building, a more powerful inverter is used or the system capacity is increased by connecting up to ten voltage converters at the same time. At the same time, the number of drives in the system must also be increased.
A generator, solar panels and a wind generator can be used as part of an inverter system to ensure long battery life.
Each system is selected individually. Call us or send a request for a free system selection from the site.
Inverter system as a backup power source
The electrical system operates in a fully automatic mode, which eliminates the need for human presence. The principle of operation of the inverters in the basic and advanced configurations is the same.
When there is voltage in the network, the inverter passes it in transit to the load and maintains the charge in the batteries. As soon as the basic power supply from the grid stops, the inverter takes energy from a backup source, that is, directly from the energy storage.
The device converts the DC battery current into a pure sine AC voltage of 220 V, ideal for even the most demanding electrical appliances. This transition is carried out instantly, so the devices connected to the network continue to operate normally from a backup power source.
The number of inverters and drives directly depends on how long the backup power source should be used and how much power it should provide to electrical appliances. The battery charge may be enough to keep the existing devices in operation from several hours to several days.
Applications of inverters
Inverters with storage batteries are used for uninterrupted power supply:
- country cottages and dachas;
- restaurants, cafes and hotels;
- cinema halls and television centers;
- yachts and boats;
- scientific stations;
- mobile systems for various purposes;
- telecommunications facilities;
September 29, 2021
New LIBRA batteries are already on sale!
The increasing use of solar energy and electric transport requires high-quality and durable batteries to store it. Maintenance free…
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Power supply system for a country house using solar energy
Ventilation, air conditioning, underfloor heating, home theater, swimming pool, multi-room – this is far from a complete list of what needs electricity in …
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New project – uninterruptible power supply system for a country house
The system is designed for full load and ensures operation up to 6 hours
October 22, 2019
ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF THE CORRECT BATTERY CHARGING ALGORITHM
Choose a cheaper and simpler system – be prepared to replace the battery, or even the entire equipment!
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SOLAR POWER PLANT IN MOSCOW REGION. SEPTEMBER AND THE FIRST HALF-YEAR.
Observations and measurements: how solar panels work at different times of the year depending on the amount of sun.
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Home Uninterruptible Power Supply
In this article, we’ll look at the most efficient ways to use Victron Energy’s voltage converters. You will learn how to create the most economical…
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Providing power for a country house using solar energy
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2 kW system with four batteries with 8 kWh energy reserve without deep discharge in a private house
The system has enough power to power two refrigerators, three garage doors, lighting, a TV in the living room and a computer for studying.
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Providing power in a country house in the absence of a network
In a country house, it is necessary to provide power for up to 6 hours in the absence of a network.
All completed projects
Battery back-up power for a private house: examples of projects and prices0003
Posted by the author Sergey Lednev – Uninterrupted power supply of houses, We did it – June 17, 2019
In this post, we will show examples of the implementation of backup power at home in one phase out of three. Often this is the most optimal solution in terms of budget: we collect in one group all the most important loads in the house: heating and water supply systems, partial lighting, refrigerators, security systems and video surveillance, a router, some socket groups.
Such a scheme allows you to exclude a powerful load (electric ovens, washing machines and dryers, electric boilers and underfloor heating, etc. ), which in turn allows you to significantly increase battery life or save on the number and capacity of batteries.
Example 1: standby phase inverter
The main entry to our customer’s house was made with an armored cable laid in the ground, then through the underfloor the cable entered the main switchboard on the ground floor. Following the wishes to minimize interference in the interior, we decided to connect directly through the “tie-in” into this cable and lay our power line to the inverter through the underground space.
As a result, an inverter with batteries was installed in the boiler room:
Bineos 5KF inverter and 4 batteries of 200Ah each
Our system included:
- Bineos 5KF inverter with a nominal power of up to 5 kW, peak – 10 kW.
- UPS panel with standby phase breaker, inverter input and output breaker, manual bypass
- Batteries 200 Ah MNB MM 200-12 – 4 pcs.
- Reinforced modular rack (L*W*H: 50*60*100)
Our UPS feeds one phase in the house, on which we have assembled all the most critical loads, including the De Dietrich floor standing gas boiler. Estimated battery life at an average continuous load of 800W will be more than 9 hours. Note that the inverter also protects your appliances from power surges and EMI.
Price of the project with installation work and all materials: ~ 190t.r.
In case space is limited, you can install a narrow rack and compactly place the system on it:
Placing on a narrow rack
Here I will additionally pay attention to the Ectocontrol GSM module, which in our case acts as an alert about power outages before the inverter, and also informs you that the batteries are dead. In addition, we installed a wireless temperature sensor, which allowed us to control the gas boiler according to a specific program:
GSM module for notification of power outages and control of the heating system
Example 2: inverter and voltage regulator for the main backup phase
In the electrical project of our customer’s country house, a group of consumers was provided, which must have a guaranteed and high-quality power supply. A power line has already been laid for the installation of equipment according to our terms of reference. The choice was made in favor of a combined backup power supply system: inverter + voltage stabilizer:
Inverter MAC Energy PRO 6.0/48 and voltage stabilizer
- Energotech Prime 9000 is a high-precision electronic voltage regulator that works correctly even with equipment with high inrush currents
- Inverter MAC Energy PRO 6.0/48 is an off-line UPS with a switchover time to battery operation in 10ms.
- Batteries Delta DTM 12200L
- Reinforced modular rack (L*W*H: 50*60*200)
The most important electrical consumer in our project is the Buderus Logano floor standing gas boiler.
The screen of our inverter displays a load of 400W, and at this power, our battery bank with a total capacity of 800Ah will provide a battery life of more than 21 hours.
Inverter MAC Energy PRO 6.0/48
Solution cost with installation: ~ 250t. r.
Often, the electrical distribution board is located in the hallway, in which case the inverter with batteries can be placed directly inside the built-in cabinet:
Example 3: on-line UPS type
and the voltage disappears from time to time. Conventionally, the causes of such poor-quality power supply can be divided into two types – external and internal. The external ones include:
- Old and unstable transformer substation
- Overload, wear and emergency condition of the external supply network
- Interference and interference from industrial electrical equipment or welding
- Strong phase imbalance
- Inlet cable small
- Poor neutral conductor contact, incorrect neutral mode
- Poor contact of phase conductors
- Poor quality materials and electrical work
- Faulty household appliances.
As a result of the diagnostic visit, our engineer made a conclusion about the external nature of the voltage problems and in this case the most optimal solution is a double conversion UPS (on-line type) with external batteries.